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Old 10-04-2010, 09:08 AM
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Default Cannabis to Treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

After reading through some of the threads dealing with cannabis and PTSD, I felt I could make a contribution by adding some of my own thoughts, as well as adding a couple of articles dealing with this issue, both scientific and anecdotal.

I am a sufferer of the insidious illness known as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. It has plagued my life for nearly 35 years. It has cost me a wife, my home, my kids, and finally, my sanity. It took me to the depths of despair, and led me into a life of poly-drug use in an attempt to escape the horrors of my mind. There seemed no escape.

It was not until I started to hear reports that cannabis was a valuable tool in dealing with PTSD that I began to feel some hope that things may change for the better.

In order to alleviate my symptoms and pursue a normal life style I turned to cannabis with successful results.

The relaxing, and anxiolitic (anti-anxiety) effects of cannabis under some conditions has been known for centuries but it is only recently that I have begun to understand the complex way in which cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulate the expression of anxiety-type behaviour. I found immediate relief, but in a way that I least expected, and in a way that few others had discussed. I found that Cannabis suppressed my dreams!

There is a lot of science about how cannabis disrupts REM, in particular Delta 4 and Delta 5 stages of sleep. This sleep disruption was seen as a deleterious side effect of cannabis use. My observations were that quite the opposite was the case. I found it a necessary and beneficial side effect! The tincture of cannabis immediately became the primary treatment for my PTSD.

For sufferers of PTSD, nights can be a difficult time. The persistent night terrors and nightmares can destroy the quality of life. They become a constant reminder of the past, and from a clinician's point of view, are very difficult to treat.

"Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) results from extreme attack on psychological wellbeing involving threat of loss of life or intense physical harm. Individuals stricken with this malady frequently find themselves reliving the memories of the trauma through "flashbacks" during waking hours and night terrors and nightmares when asleep, the latter two resulting in insomnia which further compromises psychological wellbeing. PTSD can completely undermine an individual's attempts to operate as a functional member of society." (Wikipedia)


My PTSD stems from being locked up in Sagmalicar Prison, in Istanbul, Turkey. I am a survivor of torture and imprisonment.

Some 15 years after my release from Sagmalicar, I began having night terrors and nightmares on a regular occurrence. I would wake several times during the night, filled with fear and drenched with sweat. It would always be the same dreams, night after night after night. My life slowly started to unravel, and my world began to be filled with anxiety and fear. I dreaded going to bed because as soon as I turned the lights off, my mind fell back into the deep dark horrors of Sagmalicar. I re-lived the beatings, and my sweats reminded me of the water-boarding. I became dysfunctional and my marriage collapsed. I fell into a sad life of poly-drug use, and began to sense a strong feeling of social exclusion. I felt incredibly alone.

The dreams came and went with an increasing frequency and intensity. I tried everything from strong sedatives to prolonged sessions of cognitive therapy with a Forensic psychologist. It was one step forward and two steps back. There was just no escaping the simple fact that I eventually needed to sleep, and that was when all the therapies in the world could not help. When the lights went out and I fell into the dark, my mind took me further into the dark. I was desperate to find answers.

I began to look for answers.

Reclaiming the Night

One advantage of growing older is that you can look back on the past and see patterns in your life. I had noticed over the years that when I smoked cannabis, my PTSD symptoms seemed lessened. I found in particular that my anxiety levels were diminished, and that depending on the strain of cannabis I was smoking, my moods were also modulated to tolerable levels. This was a critical observation as depression had set in as a result of my anxieties and sleep disorder. I noticed also that I was able to sleep through the night without dreaming. It was the absence of dreams that truly was the key to finding the answers that no doctors or psychologists could give to me.

I started looking on the internet and could find nothing on cannabis and dream suppression. Sure, there was plenty of info on PTSD and the wonderful results from using cannabis as a primary treatment regimen, but nothing specifically on REM and dream suppression.

I then made a decision that I would need to be the master of my own destiny, so I devised a cannabis-based treatment regimen, specifically tailored to meet my needs. I began to source cannabis strains that I knew to be efficacious in mood modulation and dream suppression. I collected genetics from around the world and began studying the results of my observations.

Over a period of time I began to notice that while the benefits of dream suppression were good from smoked cannabis, it was not good for me to be smoking. I looked for other avenues of THC delivery, with the basic premise being that any method chosen must have an easily titratable dosing method. I was not happy with medibles, as I discovered it took a long time to get an effect, and it was difficult to get the correct dose. I was seeking relief from my dreaming, rather than seeking the high. In other words, I wanted the benefits of cannabis without the distortion of conscious thought you get when "high". I found that tinctures of cannabis were the answer to my dilemma.


Now, this brings me to a fascinating article written by a friend of mine at Treating Yourself, Pflover.

I am also attaching a study by Beat Lutz -The Endocannabinoid System and Extinction Learning.

I hope this in some way will assist others who suffer from PTSD to better understand their illness and also understand the how and why of the beneficial effects of cannabis in treating PTSD.

PTSD, Anxiety, Extinguishing Painful Memories and the Endogenous Cannabinoid System


by Ally (aka pflover)
“Preserve Neural Plasticity!”


Published in: Treating Yourself: The Alternative Medical Journal



“My wife is very grateful to have a 'friendly husband' as opposed to a grouchy, complaining, in-pain, morphine- and Prozac-affected husband. My wife will gladly testify at any hearing as to the effect of medical marijuana on my PTSD. If anyone dares to tell her that medical marijuana does not work for PTSD -- they'd better prepare to lose that argument! She lives with me -- she knows!”


- Rick Fabian, http://www.letfreedomgrow.com/articles/rick_fabian.htm


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) results from extreme attack on psychological wellbeing involving threat of loss of life or intense physical harm. Individuals stricken with this malady frequently find themselves reliving the memories of the trauma through “flashbacks” during waking hours and night terrors and nightmares when asleep, the latter two resulting in insomnia which further compromises psychological wellbeing. PTSD can completely undermine an individual’s attempts to operate as a functional member of society.


Who develops PTSD, you might ask? Historically, veterans have brought the most attention to this condition as is made evident by the older names “Shell Shock” and “battle/combat fatigue”. This is despite the fact that soldiers only compose one group suffering from this condition. As of yet, there are no known cut and dry rules about exactly who will or who won't develop PTSD. Depending on the severity, in 5%-80% of individuals, experiencing one of the following events will trigger onset of the disorder: violent military duty, car accidents, domestic abuse, surgery, sexual abuse/assault, child abuse, torture, terror tactics, severe natural disasters, etc (Wikipedia, 1). The following quote typifies the life of many PTSD suffers:

“I’ve been a deputy sheriff as well as a police chief and a private investigator, but the PTSD always made me crash and burn. I’ve lost everything several times, and for the last few years I have been rebuilding again. My doctors have told me to retire and try to maintain as normal a life as possible.”

- Michael McKenna, http://www.rxmarihuana.com/pstd.htm


In order to alleviate their symptoms and pursue a normal life style many suffers turn to cannabis with successful results. The relaxing, and anxiolitic (anti-anxiety) effects of cannabis under some conditions have been know for centuries but it is only recently that we have begun understand the complex way in which cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulate the expression of anxiety-type behavior.


There are three main factors that are important to the study and understanding of PTSD. These are aversive memory formation, if the aversive memory or fear is cue-induced vs contextual, and finally the extinction of the aversive memory or fear. In humans, aversive memory formation occurs during the traumatic event(s) that initiate PTSD. In animal models of PTSD, a mild but inescapable foot shock or repeated loud tones can form aversive memories in rodents. In humans, a vet easily startled by loud noises would be experiencing cue-induced fear where as an accident victim having a panic attack from the feeling of being in the driver's seat of a car has experienced contextual fear. For rodents in the lab, cue-induce fear is produced by the repeated pairing of a loud noise with a foot shock a second later. The cue-induce fear is expressed by the rodent when it is next exposed to the noise. Contextual fear in the lab is often elicited by the pairing of a series of loud tones with a unique environment. The contextual fear is expressed when the rodent is later placed in the same unique environment minus the tones. Extinction of the aversive memory for both lab animals and humans usually involves repeated exposure and habituation to the cue or context that elicits the fear minus the original fearful stimulus until fear is no longer elicited by that cue or context. For the accident victim this would be getting in the car, then the drivers seat and then actually driving. For the mouse who was shocked after hearing a loud noise it would be repeatedly hearing that noise without experiencing foot shock. There are other factors of PTSD in humans which are important to treatment but are not necessary for the study of PTSD in the lab.


Recent advancements in the understanding of the eCB system and how it helps modulate the formation of memory and responses to stress have provided researchers with an explanation of how cannabis can act as a successful treatment agent for PTSD. Fride, et al., 2005 found that mice lacking the cannabiniod-1 (CB1) receptor, the receptor responsible for the effect cannabis has on the central nervous system (CNS), were significantly more likely to experience behavioral inhibition after repeat cue-induced stress as compared to wild type mice not lacking the CB1 receptor. Behavioral inhibition is one animal model of PTSD. These findings gave support to the theory that the cannabinoid system could effect the formation of PTSD. Further evidence comes from the location of CB1 receptors in the brain. The brain regions responsible for controlling memory formation and emotion also contain large numbers of CB1 receptors, (Joy, et al., 1999). In 2003, Costanzi, et al., also found that anandamide, the endogenous ligand for the CB1 receptor, dose-dependently inhibited stressful memory formation. Chronic stress has been found to produce cognitive impairment which is attenuated by the administration of cannabinoids. The same chronic stress was also found to produce significant downregulation (reduction in density) of CB1 receptors and decreases in amount of anandamide found in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is involved with the formation of complex contextual memories. These findings led the researchers to suggest deficiencies in CB1 receptor densities and/or production of anandamide in the hippocampus were critically involved in the development of the behavioral inflexibility and a tendency to perseverate and ruminate that are part of the symptomological profile of such stress induced neurological disorders as PTSD, (Hill, et al., 2005).


In 2002, Marsicano, et al. concluded that the endocannabinoid system was also involved with the extinction of cue-induced adverse memories. They determined this action was achieved through inhibition of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) by way of pre-synaptic modulation of GABA release in the amygdala via activation of CB1 receptors. They also found anandamide levels were elevated in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) during memory extinction tests. The BLA is a brain region known to be involved with extinction of cue-induced fear (Tomaz, Dickinson-Anson, & McGaugh, 1992). It was later confirmed that synaptic transmission of GABA was decreased in the BLA by activation of the CB1 receptor (Azad, et al., 2003).

Since Marsicano's study in 2002, the dependence of extinction of cue-induced fear responses on the eCB system has begun to gained general acceptance by the scientific community (Chhatwal, et al., 2005; Mikics, et al., 2006; Kamprath, et al., 2006; Pamplona, et al., 2006; Niyuhire, et al., 2007; Varvel, et al., 2007). At the same time a more complex and complete picture has started to appear. One emerging trend points to modulation of the eCB system as more effective at aiding in extinction than direct activation of the CB1 receptor via an exogenous cannabinoid like THC (Chhatwal, et al., 2005; Patel & Hillard, 2006; Varvel, et al., 2007). At best, facilitation of extinction by exogenous cannabinoids is dependent on species and breed of rodent and on the cannabinoid tested, in the studies that have been carried out so far (Pamplona, et al., 2006). In most cases though exogenous cannabinoids like THC and WIN55212-2 produce no detectable change in extinction rates of cue-induced fear at doses tested. Modulation of the eCB system via inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) appears to be a very promising means of facilitating extinction of cue-induced fears. FAAH is the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolic breakdown of anandamide. Inhibiting FAAH increases intercellular levels of anandamide and thus enhances the ability of anandamide to activate the CB1 receptor. In this way inhibition of FAAH appears to reliably facilitate extinction (Chhatwal, et al., 2005; Patel & Hillard, 2006; Varvel, et al., 2007). One recent study even found that mice with either genetically or pharmacologically compromised FAAH not only exhibited faster extinction rates in a spatial memory task but also faster rates of acquisition/learning of the task in the first place (Varvel, et al., 2007). Chhatwal and colleagues, 2005, also found that upon subsequent foot-shock rats treated with a FAAH inhibitor were less likely to re-acquire fearful behaviors after extinction than were none-treated animals.

The situation is not so clear for contextual fears. With contextual fear it is the context/environment that induces the fear response. This is in contrast to cue-induced fear where the presentation of a stimulus such as a loud noise elicits the fear response. Two different brain structures are responsible for cue-induced and contextual fear, the amygdala and the hippocampus, respectively. Therefore it might be expected that cannabinoids would effect these two types of fear differently. Early findings suggest this is the case. In 2006, Mikics and colleagues exposed rats to short sessions of foot-shocks and 24 hours later tested their fear response to the environment in which the shocks had occurred. They found that when WIN55212-2 was administered prier to behavioral testing 24 hours after the rats received shock an increase in the expression of contextual fear was observed. A CB1 receptor antagonist blocked this effect and when administered alone reduced the intensity of contextual expressed by the rats. In other words cannabinoids made them more afraid, while blocking cannabinoids reduced fear. One implication of this finding is that exogenous cannabinoids like smoking cannabis could exacerbate the experience of preexisting contextual fears.


If only things were that simple. Later the same year, Pamplona and colleagues found that WIN55212-2 facilitated extinction of contextual fear in rats both immediately and 30 days after acquisition of contextual fear. Furthermore, the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant disrupted extinction both immediately and at the 30 day fear extinction sessions. It is clear the role of cannabinoids in contextual fear requires further elucidation before we can predict how cannabinoids will effect this more complex form of associative fear learning.


People suffering from PTSD often also experience affective disorders like major depression or bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. They also experience increased startle response, irritability, nightmares/terrors, and insomnia. One theory proposed by Hill and Gorzalka in 2005 suggested that the eCB system plays a major role in major depression. First they site the fact that both the genetic disruption and pharmacological blockade of the CB1 receptor resulted in a state analogous to major depression and generalized anxiety, two closely related disorders. Hill and Gorzalka also point out that the eCB system is down-regulated by chronic stress. There is also evidence that the eCB system is involved with the regulation of stress and general anxiety. In general, genetic CB1 receptor deficits or pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors both produce anxiety and depression in rodents. Where as FAAH inhibition produces anxiolitic effects (Viveros, Marco, & File, 2005; Carrier, Patel, & Hillard, 2005). In a test of general anxiety in mice Patel and Hillard, 2006, found that the CB1 agonists WIN5212-2 and CP 55,940 (40 times more potent than THC) both produced an anxiolitic effect at the lowest dose tested. THC however was found to produce a dose-dependent anxiety-like response. One FAAH/anandamide-uptake inhibitor produced an anxiolitic effect at lower doses but had no effect at the highest dose tested while another pure FAAH inhibitor produced only a dose-dependent anxiolitic effect.


It has long been thought that the neurotransmitter serotonin plays a role in depression and anxiety. Braida et al., 2007 found that both THC and an anandamide uptake inhibitor were dose-dependently anxiolitic and that this was blocked by a serotonin 1A (5-HTA1) receptor antagonist. They also found that co-administration of a sub-threshold dose of a 5-HTA1 receptor agonist with a sub-threshold dose of either THC or the uptake inhibitor produced a synergistic anxiolitic effect together. This led them to conclude that serotonin played a modulatory role in the anxiolitic effect of both exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids.

Estrogen produces anxiolitic and anti-depressant effects. Estrogen has been shown to regulate FAAH. Hill, Karacabeyli and Gorzalka, 2007, found that estrogen induced anxiolitic properties were blocked but the administration of a CB1 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, FAAH inhibition produced much of the same anxiolitic effects as estrogen in the tasks tested. This led the researchers to conclude that FAAH inhibition might be a viable treatment option for depression and anxiety disorders in women. This is also important to PTSD since the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in women (10.4%) is a little more than twice as high as in men (5%) (Wikipedia, 1). Again, this provides further evidence that eCB modulation should be a pharmacological target of future anxiety treatments.

As stated above, issues with sleep also afflict PTSD suffers. In rats, anandamide changes sleep patterns by increasing slow-wave sleep and REM sleep at the expense of wakefulness (Murillo-Rodríguez, et al., 2001). Sleep deprivation also produces increases in slow-wave sleep and REM sleep once sleep does occur. This phenomenon is known as the rebound effect or sleep rebound. Navarro et al., 2003 found that administration of a cannabinoid antagonist before sleep rebound prevented the REM rebound and that sleep deprivation did not change CB1 receptor densities in rat brains. However sleep deprivation plus 2 hours sleep rebound increased CB1 receptor densities in rat brains. Therefore it appears that changes in the eCB system play a role in the rebound effect. Because THC and anandamide increase sleep in humans and other mammals, Murillo-Rodríguez, et al., 2003, investigated whether or not adenosine, a sleep-inducing nucleoside, might be involved in cannabinoid induced sleep. During the third hour after administration of anandamide, intracellular adenosine levels peaked in rat basal forebrains. Peak adenosine levels were accompanied by a significant increase in slow-wave sleep during the third hour after anandamide administration. Both the induction of sleep and the rise in adenosine levels were blocked by the administration of a CB1 receptor antagonist. Together, these findings led the researchers to suggest that the eCB system may be a pharmacological target of treatment for conditions that produce severe sleep disruption such as PTSD.


All these indications that the CB1 receptor and anandamide may play a role in stress and memory has led the Israeli military to start an investigation into treating PTSD in their soldiers with therapeutic cannabis. In 2004 at Jerusalem's Hebrew University, Raphael Mechoulam started studying the effects of orally administered delta9-THC, the active ingredient in cannabis, on 15 Israeli soldiers suffering from PTSD acquired during combat in the Gaza Strip. Although the study is still in progress, Mr Mechoulam stated that, as one might expect based the studies discussed above, cannabis “helps them sleep better, for one thing. These people often wake up from nightmares and experience sweating or hallucinations” (Heller, 2004).


Despite the anecdotal evidence to the contrary, most of the experimental studies that have been conducted so far indicate that by and large the administration of exogenous cannabinoids such as vaporizing therapeutic cannabis may not be the most reliable nor effective means of utilizing the eCB system to treat anxiety and aversive memories such as those formed in PTSD. For reliable and truly effective treatment of these conditions it appears that restricting eCB breakdown by way of FAAH inhibition is the best target discovered so far within the eCB system. (The other eCB targets include the two primary receptors CB1/CB2, vanilloid receptors, eCB reuptake, as well as eCB production.) To this end, Kadmus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has started to express serious interest in marketing a new FAAH inhibitor they have developed, currently code-named KDS-4103. KDS-4103 appears to have a lot of potential from a pharmacological perspective. Even though it produces analgesic, anxiolitic, and anti-depressant effects it otherwise does not produce a classic cannabis-like effect profile and animals easily discriminate between THC and KDS-4103. All this indicates that KDS-4103 does not produce a “high” like THC and other direct CB1 agonists. KDS-4103 is orally active in mammals and fails to elicit a systemic toxicity even at repeated dosages of 1,500mg/kg body mass. All other available evidence to date also suggests a very high therapeutic margin for KDS-4103. All in all, considering that the kinds of events which usually precipitate PTSD in most individuals often also involve pain, KDS-4103 seems like it may be just about the perfect medication.


So what should all this mean to the individual? Anecdotal evidence says by and large the use of therapeutic cannabis provides a significant improvement in quality of life both for those suffering from this malady and for their family and friends. Whether or not this is taking the fullest advantage possible of the eCB system in the treatment of PTSD is yet to be seen. Mostly the use of cannabis and THC to treat PTSD in humans appears to provide symptomological relief at best. In and of itself, there is nothing wrong with symptomological relief. That's what taking aspirin for a headache, a diuretic for high blood pressure, opiates to control severe pain, or olanzapine for rapid-cycling mania is all about. We do have the potential, however, to do better than just treating symptoms of PTSD via activation of the cannabinoid receptors. With the right combination of extinction/habituation therapy and the judicious administration of a FAAH inhibitor like KDS-4103 we have the potential to actually cure many cases of PTSD. For the time being though, symptomological treatments are all we have for more generalized anxiety and depression disorders.


If an individual were to want to get the most out of using therapeutic cannabis to improve a PTSD condition they should try to use low to moderate doses with as stable a blood level as possible for general anxiety and depression symptoms. Oral cannabis produces more stable blood levels. Since peak levels will produce the most soporific effect, administration of oral cannabis right before bed should produce the most benefits for improving sleep patterns. If the goal is to use cannabis to facilitate extinction of the response to PTSD triggers than small to moderate doses of cannabis vapors should be administered shortly before planned exposure to the trigger. A series of regular extinction sessions will produce better results than a single session. If cannabis appears to make aversion, fear, or aversive memories worse then the dosage should be lowered. If feelings of fear do not improve with lower dose then discontinue use of cannabis as fear-extinction aide.


In light of all evidence currently available, it is striking that the FDA refuses to investigate cannabinoids for the treatment of anxiety disorders like PTSD yet they have approved studies of MDMA, the club drug Ecstasy, for the treatment of PTSD (Doblin, 2002). Even if you do not accept cannabis as the answer itself, it should be hard to accept that by and large we still have not found effective and reliable ways to utilize the eCB system in modern western medicine. After all, the most potent (meaning it takes the least amount to produce a threshold effect) substance know to humans is not LSD as many still assume but is instead a derivative of fentanyl, know as Carfentanil. The threshold dosages for LSD and Carfentanil are 20-30µg (micrograms) and 1µg, respectively (Wikipedia, 2 & 3). This makes Carfentanil 10,000 times more potent than morphine, 100 times more potent than fentanyl, and 20-30 times more potent than LSD. At least up until 2005 and unlike LSD, Carfentanil was(is?) regulated as a Schedule II substance in the US (Erowid). For those that do not know, this means that despite perceived extreme dangers from use or abuse of this drug it is still assumed to have medical value. With the lives and well being of so many veterans AND private citizens at stake, those in the scientific community and police makers alike cannot afford to miss the wake up call. Even a child should be able to see the hypocrisy evident in the relative policies concerning cannabinoids and opiates. It is time to fix this appalling imbalance in our policies concerning the pharmacopia or else be the laughing stock of future generations.


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Last edited by Smokin Moose; 10-04-2010 at 09:38 AM.
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Old 10-04-2010, 09:35 AM
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Taken from Granny Storm Crow's list 2010

POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER/ PTSD
Never fear, cannabinoids are here (article - 2002)
http://mcforadhd.free.fr/naturefear.pdf
The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories.
(abst - 2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12152079
Study: Marijuana Eases Traumatic Memories (news - 2002)
http://cannabisnews.com/news/13/thread13601.shtml
Cannabis-like Brain Chemical Blocks Out Bad Memories
(news - 2002)
342
http://www.scientificamerican.com/ar...ke-brain-chemi
Endocannabinoids extinguish bad memories in the brain (news - 2002)
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/...l.php?id=123#1
Marijuana-Like Compound Banishes Fear (news - 2002)
http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/n...-banishes-fear
Natural high helps banish bad memories (news - 2002)
http://www.newscientist.com/article/...-memories.html
Israel to soothe soldiers with marijuana (news - 2004)
http://newsmine.org/content.php?ol=w...-marijuana.txt
Enhancing Cannabinoid Neurotransmission Augments the Extinction of Conditioned Fear (full - 2005)
http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v3.../1300655a.html
Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes (full - 2006)
http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content...urcetype=HWCIT
PTSD and Cannabis: A Clinician Ponders Mechanism of Action (news - 2006)
http://ccrmg.org/journal/06spr/perspective2.html
Cannabis Eases Post Traumatic Stress (news - 2006)
http://ccrmg.org/journal/06spr/ptsd.html
Modulation of Fear and Anxiety by the Endogenous Cannabinoid System
(full - 2007)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...tool=pmcentrez
Medical Marijuana: PTSD Medical Malpractice (news - 2007)
http://salem-news.com/articles/june1...eque_61407.php
Cannabis for the Wounded - Another Walter Reed Scandal (news - 2007)
http://www.libertypost.org/cgi-bin/r...179973&Disp=11
PTSD and Cannabis: A Clinician Ponders Mechanism of Action (news - 2006)
http://ccrmg.org/journal/06spr/perspective2.html
343
Modulation of Fear and Anxiety by the Endogenous Cannabinoid System
(full - 2007)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...tool=pmcentrez
Posttraumatic stress symptom severity predicts marijuana use coping motives among traumatic event-exposed marijuana users (abst - 2007)
http://marijuana.researchtoday.net/archive/4/8/1378.htm
Medical Marijuana: PTSD Medical Malpractice (news - 2007)
http://salem-news.com/articles/june1...eque_61407.php
Cannabis for the Wounded - Another Walter Reed Scandal (news - 2007)
http://www.libertypost.org/cgi-bin/r...179973&Disp=11
Cannabinoid Receptor Activation in the Basolateral Amygdala Blocks the Effects of Stress on the Conditioning and Extinction of Inhibitory Avoidance
(full - 2009)
http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content...urcetype=HWCIT
The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (abst - 2009)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1...?dopt=Abstract
Marijuana could alleviate symptoms of PTSD (news - 2009)
http://israel21c.org/health/marijuan...mptoms-of-ptsd
'Pot' may help combat PTSD U. of Haifa study shows (news - 2009)
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/m.../ai_n47410466/
Cannabis and PTSD by Michael McKenna (anecdotal - 2010)
http://marijuana-uses.com/cannabis-a...chael-mckenna/
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  #3  
Old 10-04-2010, 10:44 AM
squiggles's Avatar
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Thanks for that SM was an insightful read as i myself suffer from Ptsd
also being bipolar my medication was leaving me a zombie unable to sleep

cannabis helps me if the fact that i now can sleep
and operate during the day
and i seem to be getting better so to speak the doctor
has even cut down my medications

marijuana my be my saviour after all

Last edited by squiggles; 10-04-2010 at 10:47 AM.
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  #4  
Old 10-04-2010, 11:59 AM
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Pretty thorough and academic mate, a lot of compelling evidence you've amassed. Good job.

On a personal note can you tell of some of the strains you have found to help with the PTSD?
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Old 10-04-2010, 12:40 PM
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Hi Bushweed

I find most sativas help me, anything with a in your head up high and little or no body stone, high Thc low Cbd ?
After a joint i feel alot calmer(helps me think)
i find my dreams are not as vivid at night
my partner has also found i dont have night terrors anymore(i dont remember them)

were as a high Cbd? indica strain sort off steps up on my bipolar medication leaving me zombified.

i have a sweet tooth 3 clone sativa pheno which i think sits 50/50 thc cbd
i find quite good middle of the day before dinner

sorry Sm for hijacking your thread for a bit
its just this is one subject that i find close to home so too speak.
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  #6  
Old 10-04-2010, 01:21 PM
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Location: Somewhere deep in the mind's eye.
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Thanks for the insightful contribution, Bushweed and Squiggles..
One strain that is dear to my heart for relief from PTSD is Zoid, from Moonunit. Another is White Widow. Perhaps the most significant help I got was from a strain called Zombie Virus. It gave me very good sleep, combined with pain relief for my broken back.
If you can get a hold of the Zoid, I can highly recommend it, particularly for the beneficial mood modulation.
I hope that helps and I look forward to more contributions.
I have advice from Dr Bob Melamede to look for high CBD strains, which I am hoping Shanti and Nevil can develop.
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