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  #641  
Old 12-13-2011, 04:21 PM
Shelby
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It's funny all this talk of caterpillars I had em this year too. It was a shame I had a praymantis living on my plant for like a month too but once the plant stated budding he was gone, I was digging him, like a little plant protector or something. I didn't know wasps are a natural deterrent for caterpillars, tinleefloufa you have any suggestions for bringing them in towards your plants. Donald man that black hash looks nasty I just got Laurence Cherniaks old book on hash and yours reminds of of when there in Nepal rolling temple balls. Hope your enjoying your fruits Donald it's well deserved.
  #642  
Old 12-13-2011, 04:39 PM
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hi DM, a good tip for taking good macro pics is to use manual focus instead of auto focus, im still learning myself m8 but im sure that's what the professionals do

tinleefloufa gave some good tips as well for getting good macro pics, no movement when taking the pic, even the slightest movement can affect the pic, tripod and a remote which is attached to camera and when you press the button on the remote it will take your pic instead of pressing the button on the camera will get you your best pics, have fun as when you get that good pic it makes it all worthwhile
  #643  
Old 12-13-2011, 04:50 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by nutella View Post
hi DM, a good tip for taking good macro pics is to use manual focus instead of auto focus, im still learning myself m8 but im sure that's what the professionals do
can that be done with shaky hands ? i guess maybe it could , camera could still be on a tripod i supose , ive never used one though

i got the shakiest hands you ever seen other then maybe someone like my grandma who had parkinsons , i take terrible pics

DM'S pics always look so good i wanna eat em

peace
  #644  
Old 12-13-2011, 05:15 PM
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howdy mns

more with respect to applicate spinosad and various human pesticide natural and organic and synthetic....one perspective with keep to mind habit and trend to such beneficial life such broad spectrum pesticide perhap distress

such to minimal distress to such beneficial population

keen to day habit to example wasp....such forage habit

howdy Shelby

how you do?

depend with you environment native and especial with respect to wasp and variety....much natural beauty and chaos within nature and within life

are you familiar to plant volatile?
am think to relate cannabis to attract human....hehe

similar wasp attract to sweet fruit and bright color flower
one perspective perhap to plant decoy to caterpillar....such plant native you environment also symbiosis relate to wasp with respect to plant volatile

such decoy to advance warn you plot and garden to caterpillar....such similar to moat and castle
ideal to proper delay with respect to alert predator wasp with respect to you environment and species to thrive

with respect to pdf....keep with mind such analysis to corn
ideal to analysis to cannabis....such life to alway corn analysis

up to ear with corn analysis....hehe

with respect to alternate pdf....am difficult to separate such analysis and journal

interest to such copy to paste

Quote:
Plants Tell Caterpillars When It’s Safe to Forage
Liza Gross | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040194
Light and temperature exert significant control over the
daily lives of plants and animals. Many nocturnal species
feed during the cover of night to escape a bevy of potential
predators that hunt during the day. The effect of photoperiod
(the 24-hour daylight cycle) is so great that zoos can trick
nocturnal animals into becoming active for visitors simply by
keeping their exhibit dark in the daytime and illuminating it
at night.
But the world is filled with cues that could influence the
daily feeding patterns of an organism. Many plants, for
example, respond to foraging damage by releasing specialized
chemical signals—volatile organic compounds that evaporate
in the air—that attract the forager’s natural enemies. This
strategy is obviously no use against a cow, but proves effective
when the offender is a caterpillar and the summoned
predator is a wasp. Just how much control such biotic factors
exert over a forager’s daily routine has remained an open
question. But in a new study, Kaori Shiojiri, Rika Ozawa, and
Junji Takabayashi show that plant signals can indeed regulate
herbivore behavior.
PLoS Biology | PLoS Biology : Publishing science, accelerating research


DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040194.g001
Plant volatiles released by corn plants may help the caterpillar M.
separata avoid predators.
0877
June 2006 | Volume 4 | Issue 6 | e206 | e194
were added. And when plants were introduced under dark
conditions, about 30% less larvae were found hiding than
were found in the dark without plants.
To test the effect of plant volatiles directly, the researchers
exposed larvae—some in the light and some in the dark—to
a flow of volatiles collected from both uninfested and infested
corn plants in light and dark conditions. When larvae in the
dark were exposed to volatiles from uninfested plants, they
hid in far greater numbers when the volatiles came from
plants in the light than when they came from plants in the
dark. And when larvae were in the light, far more hid when
exposed to volatiles taken from plants in the light. Larvae
responded similarly to volatiles taken from infested plants,
though volatiles from infested plants in the light sent even
more larvae into hiding.
These results demonstrate that it is not light that’s
controlling larval diurnal and nocturnal activity but volatiles
released by the corn. Volatile compounds released during the
day encourage hiding while those released at night indicate
that it’s safe to come out and eat. Just as parasitic wasps use
plant volatiles to home in on potential victims, caterpillars
use variations in their host plant’s volatile production to
reduce the risk of unpleasant encounters with wasps. Now
that they’ve established volatiles’ importance in influencing
foraging behavior, the researchers plan to determine which
compounds are responsible—and just how common insect–
plant communication may be.
When the larvae of beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua)
feed on corn, the plant releases volatile compounds that
act as a magnet for parasitic wasps (Cotesia marginiventris),
which deposit their eggs in the larvae. Production of volatile
chemicals increases during the day (when wasps are active)
and decreases at night, suggesting that variations in production
might affect the daily activity patterns of foraging larvae, with
low production sending the signal that the coast is clear.
To test this hypothesis, Shiojiri et al. exposed larvae of
a corn-munching caterpillar, Mythimna separata, to volatile
compounds from corn and varied the light and dark
conditions for both corn and insect. Corn infested with
M. separata releases volatiles that attract parasitic wasps
(C. kariyai). Previous work had established that M. separata
is nocturnal, based on experimental observations of the
larvae’s daily feeding and hiding behavior on corn plants,
but the impact of variable volatile production had not been
examined.
In this study, the researchers separated the effects of
photoperiod from that of host plant volatiles to tease out
their relative contributions to caterpillar behavior. First, they
tested the effects of light. If larvae are diurnal, they should
hide in “shelters” fashioned out of filter paper attached to
the plastic cups they were kept in. When larvae were fed an
artificial diet, however, different light conditions produced
no changes in their hiding behavior.
But introducing plants changed larvae behavior under
both day and night conditions. Six pots of three uninfested
corn plants—plants that had never been grazed—were placed
around the cups of larvae. After eight hours, about 20% more
larvae went into hiding when the lights were on and plants
Shiojiri K, Ozawa R, Takabayashi J (2006) Plant volatiles, rather than
light, determine the nocturnal behavior of a caterpillar. DOI: 10.1371/
journal.pbio.0040164
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Attached Images
File Type: png caterpillar.png (132.6 KB, 71 views)
Attached Files
File Type: pdf journal.pbio.0040164.pdf (176.2 KB, 1 views)
File Type: pdf journal.pbio.0040194.pdf (542.6 KB, 0 views)
  #645  
Old 12-13-2011, 07:11 PM
Donald Mallard
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Hi ,
the main trouble i have is having such a large mono crop in an area that is inhabited by lots of moths and butterflys ,
i used to do a lot more by hand , but increase of crop has made it impossible, and spraying was the o nly way to attack the problem ,,

i have seen the wasps doing their job ,, just not enough of them ,
i would probably cover the crop with netting overhead to stop them entering in the first place if i could , prevention is the best way ...

thanks for the tips on the macros ,, got a few tripods and have a remote ,, just time is all i need now , hehe

hey shelby , i dont like spraying really ,, it kills the good guys too , and praying mantis are one of my favourite good guys ..
yep i dont mind a bit of hash , had a great glow from it last night , nice for the head ...
  #646  
Old 12-13-2011, 07:31 PM
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Join Date: May 2011
Posts: 366
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howdy DM

much respect am not critic to you....am respect and to appreciate you and you garden and you talent and you preference

am curious such pdf you to enjoy....perhap to relate with respect to habit and routine within various plant and animal kingdom....

such one perspective you to spray more near to night....such to limit distress to wasp and such to habit and forage day....also to maximum effective to combat caterpillar to evolve and forage night....

much distress with respect to spinosad am keen to think relate within liquid mix....such to dry within relative short time and such distress risk less

howdy Shelby

within pdf more to such mutual relate within plant and animal and life

with respect to extrafloral nectar....am curious to mns experience such sap within cannabis? perhap such similar to extrafloral nectar within pdf?

positive vibration
  #647  
Old 12-13-2011, 07:34 PM
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Posts: 366
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Attached Files
File Type: pdf Heil indirect defence tritrophic ecology.pdf (562.2 KB, 0 views)
  #648  
Old 12-13-2011, 07:44 PM
Donald Mallard
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Quote:
Originally Posted by tinleefloufa View Post
howdy DM

much respect am not critic to you....am respect and to appreciate you and you garden and you talent and you preference

am curious such pdf you to enjoy....perhap to relate with respect to habit and routine within various plant and animal kingdom....

such one perspective you to spray more near to night....such to limit distress to wasp and such to habit and forage day....also to maximum effective to combat caterpillar to evolve and forage night....

much distress with respect to spinosad am keen to think relate within liquid mix....such to dry within relative short time and such distress risk less

howdy Shelby

within pdf more to such mutual relate within plant and animal and life

with respect to extrafloral nectar....am curious to mns experience such sap within cannabis? perhap such similar to extrafloral nectar within pdf?

positive vibration
hey tinlee , yes ive been keeping an eye out on the enemy to see when he was vulnerable ,, hehe
i think its always best to spray in the cool of the evenings and mornings , so long as im not spraying directly on our good insect friends , thats the key your correct ,,
i like you encouraging me to think carefully about what im doing with respect to the spraying , thanks man ,
  #649  
Old 12-13-2011, 08:33 PM
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i killed all my caterpillars with 2 spraying applications of BT... havent been back in months

had some wasps arrive naturally, but not enough of them. id go with the BT

really looking forward to some harvest pics donald

love an respect
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  #650  
Old 12-16-2011, 07:56 PM
Donald Mallard
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Quote:
Originally Posted by fxginbcn View Post
i killed all my caterpillars with 2 spraying applications of BT... havent been back in months

had some wasps arrive naturally, but not enough of them. id go with the BT

really looking forward to some harvest pics donald

love an respect
great if nature can take care of things itself , but if not , at least natural methods .l hehe
harvest has been here a while ,, but not terribly nice given the rain , most of whats being harvested at the moment is "b" grade , perhaps we will get a break during the wet , o r toward the end of it ,, one can only hope ...

Quote:
Originally Posted by aussieskunkman View Post
What about spidermites and those white hairy bugs we get ? any trade secrets there uncle Don ?
hey aussieskunkman ,, i dont get those little b uggers thankfully , never even seen any ,
most of my grows are outdoors , though still ive not seen spidermites indoors either , just lucky i guesss ,,
ants and thrip , now i see pleny of action from those guys all over the garden, not the cannabis much , but the rest of the garden suffers from ant problems all wet season ...
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